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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
OFFICE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS • • WASHINGTON. D.C. 




INDIANS AT f OEK 
CONTENTS OF TEE ISSUE OF SEPTEMBER 1938 



Volume VI Number 1 

Page 

Editorial John Collier 1 

Cover Design 3 

How Indians Are Housed 5 

An Indian Thinks "Sacred Bundle" Brougnt 

Too Much Rain 11 

From The Atlantic Seaboard To Canada, 

Texas And Oklahoma Minnie A. Garrett 12 

Ditch Cleaning At Jemez Pueblo Ten Broeck Williamson 15 

A Walrus Hunt Sullivan Coan 18 

The White Clay Dam at Pine Ridge Russell E. Getty 20 

The American Indian Sign Language John P . Harrington 24 

Oneida Indians Push Garden Program 32 

Recent Changes Of Assignment 32 

Cecil Dick, Young Cherokee Painter Maud Parker 33 

The Flambeau Fish Hatchery 34 

Three Thousand Feet Down Erik W. Allstrom 37 

From CCC-ID Reports 39 



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VOLUME ¥1 • 5EPTEM5ER 1938 - NUMBER 1 

A decision local in importance, yet with wide bearings on 
Indian life, was rendered by the Federal District Court of Southern 
California on July 23, 1938. 

Certain Indians of the Agua Caliente Band had sued to force 
land allotment. Previously by a number of years, the Interior De- 
partment had started to allot the Agua Caliente (Palm Springs) lands. 
The tribe had protested, Indian welfare groups had supported the 
tribe, and the allotments were never completed. The suit at Palm 
Springs rested upon a double theory that allotment was mandatory up- 
on and not discretionary with the Secretary of the Interior and that 
a vested right had accrued to the prospective allottees through the 
commencement of allotment, even though allotment had not been finished. 
The Court said: 

"The superior title of the Government in tribal lands 
and in allotted lands where no patents have been issued implies, 
of course, wise management. It does not confer on the Gov- 
ernment the right to despoil a tribe or an allottee of ac- 



crued rights. As Mr. Justice Cardozo said so eloquent- 
ly, in Shoshone Tribes v. United States, supra, at page 
498: 

'Spoliation is not management.' 

But the paternalistic position of the Government also 
imposes an obligation to protect the tribe or individual 
Indians against spoliation by others than the Government, 
- even spoliation by fellow tribesmen. These general con- 
siderations should aid in determining what, if any, rights 
the tribesmen acquired through these selections for allot- 
ment. On their face, the certificates contained the leg- 
end, ' Not valid unless approved by the Secretary of the 
Interior .' Such approval was never given. That it was 
necessary is evident from the language of the Act of 1891." 



Particularly significant were the Court's words: "The 
Government's obligation is to protect the tribe or individual In- 
dians against spoliation by others than the Government - even spolia- 
tion by fellow tribesmen." There are many cases where, even in unal- 
lotted reservations, a tendency toward farm land monopoly, range 
monopoly, absentee landlordism, and tenancy, can be seen at work. 
The Government's trusteeship and guardianship reach to these matters 
of public welfare and social healthfulness, not only as between In- 
dians and whites but as between Indians. 

A significant coincidence with the deoision of the Calif- 
ornia Federal Court, is the meeting of Indian Service staff members 
and superintendents at Glacier Park, Montana, starting August 14, 
for the concentrated study of problems that have arisen out of allot- 
ments already made. All students of Indian history know of the 
tremendous losses of land through allotment. All allotted Indians, 



and service workers at their reservations, know the other fact: 
that with each year, the allotted lands not yet alienated "become 
more costly to administer and, on the whole, less productive of 
income and harder to make use of. A recent case given in "Indians 
At Work" is one wherein the subdivision of equities has gone so far 
that actually until the end of time there will never accumulate, 
for some of the heirs, as much as one dollar total. Millions of 
dollars a year are consumed in the unproductive administration of 
allotted lands. And practically speaking, more lands are "being 
lost through heirship subdivision than possibly can be replaced 
by Government purchases . 

Is there any solution, as a practical matter, for this 
problem - any ending of the "allotment nightmare?" , 

The Glacier Park Conference will be the most earnest ef- 
fort yet made to find the answer. 



JtTZ~ 




Commissioner of Indian Affairs 



COVER PAGE 



The photograph which appears on the cover of this issue of 
"Indians At Work" shows some Paiute Indian women gathering potatoes 
at Walker River (Carson Agency) Nevada. 



INDIANS STILL KNOTT HOW TO USE LOCAL MATERIALS FOR HOUSES 







House In a New Mexico Pueblo, With 
Its Owner's Harvest of Corn and Chile. 




Florida Seminole Shelters 







I 



Stone, Logs and Dirt: 
A Navajo Hogan, Arizona. 




Ocatillo and Adobe House, 
Sells (Papago) Arizona 





Bark Tepee, Consolidated 
Chippewa, Minnesota. 



Zipper Shirt - Bark House: 
Bed Lake, Minnesota. 



HOW INDIANS ARE HOUSED 



The photographs on the opposite page and on the pa^es 
following show something of Indian housing conditions. A word 
should be said as to this collection: Indians and employees on 
some reservations may feel that a photograph of a particularly had 
example, which may not be typical of the reservation as a whole, 
reflects upon the condition and upon the ambition of their group. 
No such implication is intended. The number of pictures used had 
to be limited, and a real cross-section of every area was not pos- 
sible. The purpose of presenting these pictures is to show what 
is true: that there is a great deal of poor housing on Indian 
reservations and a small amount of medium-good housing; and that 
in a few areas the Indian Service has been able, through alloca- 
tions of emergency funds, through educational work by extension 
workers and teachers, through reimbursable loans, and through 
loans made to tribes organized under the Indian Reorganization Act, 
to promote better housing in some areas. The need is still very 
great. 

The collection also shows the ingenuity of Indians of 
various localities and climates in building houses with practically 
no cash outlay from whatever materials have been found at hand: 
bark, grass, brush, adobe, sod, logs and in some cases, bits of 
tar paper, sheet metal, canvas and packing crates- 

The greatest advance in Indian housing conditions during 
recent years has been made possible by allotments to the Indian 
Service from emergency relief appropriations, usually referred to 
as "Rehabilitation" funds. This money has been used for direct re- 
lief, for various work projects, such as sewing centers, community 
garden projects and for community buildings and self-help centers. 
Somewhat over a third, however, has been used for the construction 
and repair of houses and out -bull dings . This modest building pro- 
gram has proved to be a tremendous leaven in reservation conditions. 
Some of the most needy families have been rehoused; repairs have 
been made on other houses, with family members contributing labor; 
and in addition, other families, observing the repairing program 
and the building of new houses, have been fired with enthusiasm, 
and have somehow secured materials and improved their own houses. 

Some of the photographs were taken from a survey of hous- 
ing conditions made by the Extension Division in 1933; others were 
contributed by staff members, and some are by Andrew T. Kelley, De- 
partment of the Interior photographer. 



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CONTRASTS IN INDIAN HOUSING 




light People Spent the Winter in 

This Tent at Pine Eidge, South Dakota. 




Home on an Indian Rancheria, 
Sacramento Agency, California. 
This Family Has Been Rehoused. 





An Apache Wickiup, Arizona 



Well Kept Cottage at the Wind 
River Agency, Wyoming. 




Home of a Prosperous Oklahoma Osage. 




Cabin in the Cherokee Hill 
Country, Oklahoma 



MORE INDIAN HOMES 






Above - a Ute Tepee, Con- 
solidated Ute Agency, Utah. 

Below: House at Lac 
Court d'Oreillee, Great Lakes 
Agency, Wisconsin. 



Top Left - Caoin at Crow 
Creek Agency, South Dakota. 

Left Center - Home on the 
Fort Peck Reservation, Montana. 




WHAT IS BEING DONE ABOUT HOUSING: SOME EXAMPLES 





Students at the Oglala 

Community High School, 

Pine Ridge, South Dakota, 

Do Something About 

Housing: Learning Carpentry 

By House Repair. 



Above: The House That Sheep Built. This is 
the Home of Joseph Ironpipe, Blackfeet Pull- 
Blood, Which he Built Himself With Money From 
the Sale of Wool and Lambs. Joe Did All the 
Work From Going Up in the Mountains For the 
Logs to Varnishing the Floor. 




The Mescalero Apache Tribe of jurizona 

Borrowed $144,000 From the Indian 

Reorganization Act's Revolving Loan 

Fund With Which to Rehouse Its Members. 

One Apache's Old and New Home Is 

Shown Above. 




This is the New Home of Dressed In 
Yellow, of Turtle Mountain, North 
Dakota, Whose Old Home Was Shown 

On p 7 • The House Was Built From 
Old Seasoned Logs. 



10 



AN INDIAN THINKS "SACRED BUNDLE" BROUGHT TOO MUCH RAIN 



(Note: The following letter, which tells its own story, 
was sent to "Indians At Work" by Scott H. Peters, a full-blood 
Chippewa, employed as an Assistant Guidance and Placement Officer 
in Wisconsin. ) 

I am about convinced that the "Indian Sacred Bundle n has 
much to do with the control of the weather. 

Early this spring I read in an issue of "Indians At Work" 
that a delegation of Indians had been sent to a Museum in New Tork 
to recover their "Sacred Bundle" and they returned with it to their 
native home in North Dakota. Since having it again in their pos- 
session, there has been such an abundance of rain that much destruc- 
tion has been done. Most of this is because there are not enough 
trees and shrubbery in our country at the present time to absorb the 
excess moisture as in the early days. 

In my travels I have seen field after field of corn, po- 
tatoes and other farm products standing under from ten to twenty 
inches of water, great fields of wheat and oats broken down by the 
force of the winds and rain. Many road and railroad bridges have 
been washed away bringing a large death toll. Lightning too has 
played its part for just today I read in the newspaper of a storm, 
during which two men were killed by lightning while working in 
their field. Floods have left death and disaster in their paths, 
and are still raging in the central part of Wisconsin. As late as 
July 14, while traveling on a concrete road, I came upon a large 
body of water where a river had overflowed, covering the road and 
only with careful but hazardous driving was I able to reach the 
other side. 

I would like to suggest that the Indians be induced to re- 
turn this "Sacred Bundle" to the Museum in New Tork where it has 
been kept since it was captured many years ago and let the white 
man control the weather. 



11 



FROM THE ATLANTIC SEABOARD TO CANADA, TEXAS AND OKLAHOMA 
The Story Of The Delawares 

By Minnie A. Garrett, Delaware Indian 



The name "Delaware", by which our tribe is now known, was 
given by the English, due to the fact that the tribe in early Colo- 
nial days occupied the entire basin of the Delaware River in Eastern 
Pennsylvania and Southeastern New York, together with most of New 
Jersey and Delaware. They called thenfeelves "Lenape" or "Leni Le- 
nape", which translated means "native men or genuine men." By vir- 
tue of their admitted priority of political rank, because of their 
occupation of the central home territory from which most of the 
cognate tribes had diverged, they were accorded by all Algonquian 
tribes the respectful title of "grandfather." 

When they made their first treaty with William Penn in 
1682 they were a powerful nation. Their council fires burned where 
Germantown, a suburb of Philadelphia, now stands. 

William Penn had agreed to meet the Delawares personally 
to confirm the treaty of peace and the purchase of the land which 
his commissioners had bargained for. The transaction was to be 
publicly ratified. Penn came, accompanied by his friends, to the 
place where Philadelphia now stands. When he arrived he found the 
chiefs and their people all assembled. They were seen as far as 
the eye could reach up the river and down the river and in the for- 
est beyond. The Quakers were but a mere handful in comparison. 
They were unarmed. 

Penn carried the roll of parchment. The head chief put 
upon his head a kind of chaplet in which appeared a small horn, the 
the emblem of kingly power. Upon putting on this horn the Indians 
laid down their bows and arrows, for the place and the occasion had 
become sacred. The Indians seated themselves upon the ground to 
form a half-moon in groups. The chief then announced to William 
Penn by means of an interpreter that they were ready to listen. The 
treaty was ratified with due solemnity and is known today as the 
treaty that was never sworn to and never broken. 

Soon afterward began their gradual journey westward. In 
1742 they removed to the basin of the Susquehanna. In 1751 they 
were removed yet further from the Alleghanies, always referred to 



12 



as their "home over there", and for which they never ceased to long, 
to Ohio. 

In 1768 they were again removed and established three 
towns on the Muskingum River . These groups were called Christian 
Indians because of the results of the influence of the missionaries 
among them, several of whom had migrated with the Delawares. Their 
life there ended in a shameful massacre, which threw the Christian 
Indians into despair. From this period the tribe began to break up. 
One group removed to Canada where their descendants yet remain. 

On September 17, 1778 the United States entered into an 
alliance with the Delaware Nation of Indians for offensive and de- 
fensive purposes, thus making the Delaware Nation the first allies 
of the United States Government. In the treaty of 1778 all Dela- 
wares* rights were to be respected to the fullest and a state was 
formed inviting all friendly tribes to join with the Delawares at 
the head, entitling them to send a representative to Congress. 

By every act the Delawares have remained steadfast in 
their support of the United States Government and have furnished 
soldiers in all wars. During the Revoluntionary Tar the Delawares 
furnished the Colonial Government two colonels, White Eyes and Win- 
Ge-Nord, and about 900 soldiers under Chiefs Killbuck, Kelelamand, 
Pushees and Wicacolind. Five Delawares served among the personal 
bodyguards of General Washington. As evidence of the appreciation 
which General Washington and Congress had of the distinguished 
services of the Delawares, Congress educated three Delaware youths, 
relatives of the chiefs who had served the military forces during 
the Revolutionary War, at Princeton College. 

It was the Delawares who guided General Fremont across 
the Rockies. Over one hundred fought with Captain Black Beaver in 
Old Mexico and it was a Delaware who pulled down the flag at Mon- 
terey. In the Civil War, from a population of 201 males between 
the ages of 18 and 45, the Delawares sent 170 to the Union Army. 

One Delaware group, grown restless with the constant mi- 
grating, had joined a band which was later known as Absentee Shaw- 
nees • After receiving permission from the Spanish Government, 
they came down into' what is now Arkansas and Missouri and on into 
Texas. Here, under Black Beaver, they played an important part in 
the establishment of the state. They acted as guides, scouts and 
interpreters between the Government and other tribes. In return 
they were guaranteed title to land by Sam Houston, then President 
of the Republic of Texas. They began living with the Caddo tribes 
before the Civil War, then went to Kansas with some Shawnee s dur- 
ing the war, and returned at the close of the war. 



13 



There are about 100 descendants of this group living 
around Anadarko, Oklahoma, today- They are allotted as Wichita 
Indians but they have always lived among the Caddos and have in- 
termarried with them and most of them speak the Caddo language- 
Recently these Delaware s organized and elected a chief, assistant 
chief and other officers- 

Meanwhile , the northern group of Delawares had been in- 
formed by the Government that they must move from their Ohio home. 
It was a sad, disheartened procession that found its way across 
the plains to Kansas. They were hurt too deeply to cry: they had 
left a part of themselves there- 

The procession reached Eldorado, Kansas, in 1829, where 
they again established homes and again built their meeting house 
as they had done so many times before- By 1835 most of the tribe 
was settled upon the reservation- In 1867 they were again removed. 
This time they went into the Indian territory where they purchased 
land from the Cherokee Nation and in addition, matched dollar for 
dollar the money in the Cherokee treasury. In return they received 
equal rights with the Cherokees as Cherokee citizens- They no 
longer had a chief with official power, but lived under the Chero- 
kee law- They settled in the northeastern part of Oklahoma, along 
the Kansas line. One of their first acts was to build their meet- 
ing house again, where for many years they practiced their tribal 
religious ceremonies. 

On the full moon of each October they held a religious 
ceremony in this meeting house which lasted twelve days. Here they 
gathered with other invited tribes. At these meetings any brave or 
chief could tell of his experiences in hunting or warfare, never 
claiming any of the honors for himself if he had been successful in 
any event, but always thanking the Great Spirit or Manitou for his 
success- The older members fully believe misfortunes have been 
sent upon them because they deserted the form of worship which their 
ancestors taught them. 

The old meeting house has fallen down. The last of the 
logs were put in the University of Tulsa to be preserved. They still 
belong to the tribe and would come back to the tribe if the church 
were ever rebuilt. 

So it is that the last landmark of this once powerful na- 
tion has fallen. There are left very few of those who made the last 
move, not more than twelve. Their proud heads are white; the great 
tribe is scattered; they come no more to the meeting place to wor- 
ship and offer praise of thanksgiving around their great council 
fires- 



14 



DITCH CLEANING AT JgMjjjZ PUEBLO IN BM MEXICO 
By Ten Broeck Williamson, Soil Conservation Service 

NOTE: Photographs in this article are by the author and 
are used through the courtesy of the Soil Conservation Service. 

One of 
the best examples 
of the community 
aspect of Pueblo 
Indian life is 
found in the an- 
nual spring ditch 
cleaning. When 
the order is is- 
sued by the Gov- 
enor, every avail- 
able male member 
of the pueblo must 
present himself, 
equipped with the 
inevitable short- 
handled shovel, to 
assist in cleaning 
and repairing the 
community ditch, or ditches, for use during the ensuing year. 
Those unable to be present must supply others to work in their 
places. Since, as members of the pueblo, all share in the use of 
the community ditch, all are required to contribute to its repair 
and maintenance. 

At Jemez Pueblo, although the period varies with the 
weather, cleaning usually begins about February 25- It takes ten 
days to clean the four pueblo ditches. The morning that work is 
to start, on foot, by horseback and in wagons, the men gather at 
the upper end of the ditch. In the early morning light, shovels 
on shoulders, they resemble marchers in a straggling army. The 
women of the pueblo share in the community spirit of the work by 
providing for the men lunches which contain unusual foods and spe- 
cial treats. 

As the men arrive, they divide into groups of about fif- 
teen each. Those having the same surname join the same group. 




15 



Thus all men bearing such com- 
mon names as Lore t to, Toya, 
Sando or Yepa, work as a unit. 
Smaller name-groups often are 
combined or are augmented by 
those who have unique surnames. 
The same unit idea is used in 
other ways, and is of such 
long standing that each worker 
knows automatically with which 
group he is to work. 

When the groups are 
ready, the Governor assumes 
command. From the head of the 
ditch, he steps off fifteen or 
twenty paces, marking the dis- 
tance in the silt of the ditch 
bottom. The number of paces 
marked off varies with the a- 
mount of silt and brush to be 
removed from that particular 
section of the ditch. The 
groups made up of the Gover- 
nor and his officers take this 

first area to clean- The second area is assigned to the cacique's 

group; the third to the war captain and his men; and the fourth to 

the Zoshare or clowns. The next sections are taken by the various 

name groups, until 

every group has an 

allotted section 

of ditch to clean. 



At the 
Governor ' s com- 
mand, the units 
set to work vigor- 
ously. A season's 
accumulation of 
silt and debris is 
shoveled from the 
ditch. Brush is 
hacked and roots 
are dug. The en- 
tire line of 200 
men is one move- 






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16 




ment of bending 
bodies, flashing 
shovels, flying 
silt and brash. 
Each unit tries to 
be the first to 
complete its as- 
signed section. 

Soon the 
fast pace slackens 
as group after 
group finishes. 
Leaning against 
shovels or the 
bank, they pause 
to wipe the per- 
spiration from 
their faces and 
to chide those who 
are still working. 

The Governor walks along the ditch, inspecting and direct- 
ing the work. When all the groups have finished and the ditch is 
thoroughly cleaned, he gives the signal and the entire column 
marches up the ditch a distance equal to its own length, or equal 
to the section of ditch which has been cleaned. Again the Governor 
paces and assigns an area to each group; again the furious shovel- 
ing; and again the 
pause before the 
line moves up the 
ditch. 

At noon 
the men leave the 
ditch, hungry and 
eager to see what 
the lunches con- 
tain. Still by 
name-groups, they 
gather in a shel- 
tered place a- 
round a blanket. 
On it is spread 
everything from 
the lunches: an 
abundance of food 




17 



in which all share, and which, in an amazingly short time, has dis- 
appeared entirely. 

And so, shoveling, resting and pausing to eat, the column 
moves down the ditch as the men discharge their community obliga- 
tions- 



A WALRUS HUNT 
Sy Sullivan Coan, Teacher, King Island, Alaska 



Since coming here to live I had greatly wanted to go on 
a walrus hunt with a group of native hunters from King Island. One 
day in the spring the chief asked me if I would like to go with him 
in his large oomiak- Here was my chance and go I did. 

The 43-foot skin boat, or oomiak, was pulled carefully 
over the shore ice - to prevent tearing - and was safely launched. 
The equipment, including hunting bags, guns, oars and the outboard 
motor, was stowed in place. 

Everyone dresses warmly for these trips. I could hardly 
bend when I was fully dressed. I had on one pair of work pants and 
another pair made of heavy mackinaw cloth, mukluks with two pair of 
heavy wool socks inside, a wool shirt, a mackinaw and a denim parka 
with a stocking cap under the hood. I wore one pair of woolen 
gloves under leather mittens and had an extra pair in my pocket. 
Still my Eskimo friends were afraid I would be cold. 

I had no rifle, but I stuck a knife in my belt, put my 
motion picture camera and two rolls of film in my pocket, and board- 
ed the boat, in which there were already thirteen Eskimo hunters. 

The Eskimos had sighted the herd on an ice floe six miles 
from shore toward Siberia. After sailing an hour the motor was cut 
off and we pulled up beside an iceberg. One hunter crawled up with 
a telescope and located the herd. After a few minutes' discussion 
they decided upon a plan of action and we again set sail. 

Fifteen minutes later we saw the herd. Another iceberg 
was scaled; there was more talk; the outboard motor was shut off 
and we took to the oars so we could sneak up on the walrus • We 
rowed among ice floes until we were directly behind one on which 



18 



was a large herd of walrus. The men climbed out of the boat on to 
the ice and the war was on. 

All of my shooting was done from the boat with my movie 
camera- During the excitement I happened to glance back of me and 
saw six walrus headed for my boat. Thinking I would not care for 
their company, I made preparation to jump. They dived, however, 
and disappeared. 

The dead walrus were collected on the ice floes and the 
butchering began. The ivory tusks were taken first as they are ex- 
tremely valuable for carving. The skin is about an inch thick and 
when split, dried and stretched, is used for making oomiaks. The 
blubber is from three to four inches thick and is a good food. 
Under this is the meat. A walrus weighs from one to two thousand 
pounds • 

Out of the kill I secured three tongues, the only part 
of the animal palatable to whites. If you stretch your imagination 
you might think you were eating beef tongue. 

We loaded our boats quickly, for we discovered the ice 
was closing up and we had to get out while there was open water. 
When the ice closes in, boats are often crushed, and when they are 
dragged over the ice to open water they are often punctured. This 
offered a dangerous hazard so far from home. 

When we were about a mile from the Island the wind came 
up and the sea became rough. When we reached the shore we had a 
difficult time landing. After unloading we pulled the boat upon 
the permanent winter ice field. The men would not let me help very 
much as I did not have water mukluks nor seal skin pants on and 
they were afraid I would get wet. 

After the boats were up, the spoils of the hunt were di- 
vided. First the meat was proportioned out in small piles, one 
for each man- (I gave mine to the chief.) The skin goes to the 
man who skinned the walrus . Then the tusks were laid out according 
to their size by some of the older men. Each man takes one of the 
largest tusks until every one has at least one. This continues 
until the pile is too small to allow each man one more. The ones 
left are given to the boat owners to repay for gasoline and motor 
repairs. 

The Eskimos insisted that I take my share of ivory and 
the meat. But what could I do with it? So I thanked them warmly 
and told them I had been amply paid by the fun and the chance to 
make movies. 



19 



THE WHITE CLAY DAM AT PINE RIDGE 



By Russell E. Getty, Senior Project Manager 



Two miles south of the agency at the Pine Ridge Reserva- 
tion, South Dakota, the White Clay Dam, started in July, 1937, is 
being completed by Indian CCC workers. This dam, whose water will 
irrigate 350 acres of crop land, will play an important part in the 
lives of the Indians living in the White Clay Creek area. 

During the hot summer months of recent drought years, 
White Clay Creek has ceased to flow, shallow wells along the creek 
have failed, and water hales used by livestock have dried up. Re- 
peated emergency requests for water developments to relieve water 
shortages have reached the CCC-ID office at the Agency. The White 
Clay Dam is designed to solve the problem for the many Pine Ridge 
Indians living along the creek: in addition to making subsistence 
garden projects possible, it will be used for stock water, for 
fishing and for recreation. In addition, it will serve to control 
local floods. 




Pouring the Last Section of Concrete on the Wing 
Walls at the Bottom of the Spillway, June 1S38. 

Although the importance of other uses should net be mini- 
mized, the dam is justified for irrigation purposes alone, since 
through irrigation the project could pay for itself. The irrigable 
land is within two miles of the dam and extensive ditching and 
fluraing is not required. Maintenance costs will therefore be small 
The Indian Irrigation Division contributed funds for the construc- 



20 



tion of the dam and, at the present time, is supervising the build- 
ing of the irrigation system in cooperation with the CCC-Indian 
Division. 

Tribal communities, Extension and Education workers, and 
CCC-ID men as well have worked together in developing irrigated 











That Portion of the Transit Pipe Which Goee 
Through the Fill Must Be Tamped Mechanically. A 
Portable Electric Tamper and Two Portable 
"Borco" Gasoline Tampers Are Here in Use 

subsistence gardens throughout the reservation, and have established 
the fact that irrigation in this region can be successful, if mem- 
bers of Indian communities can be taught proper methods of irriga- 
tion. A large portion of the irrigable land on the White Clay is 
included within the present boarding school farm. On this part of 
the project Indian pupils will learn modern irrigation methods, 
thereby equipping them for further teaching of their fellow tribes- 
men in their home communities. The remaining land is being devel- 
oped for subsistence and resettlement projects for the large Indian 
community centered about the Agency. 



Engineering Problems Complicate Job 

Here are a few facts about the dam which is to make pos- 
sible these objectives. It contains 65,000 cubic yards of fill; 
has a 3| to 1 front slope, and a 2 to 1 back slope; has a 16-foot 
top; is riprapped on the front face with a one-foot thickness of 
native rock; has a concrete spillway 100 feet wide and 156 feet 
long with 8-foot sidewalls at the top and 18-foot walls at the bot- 
tom; is provided with pipes and gates for letting water downstream, 



21 



and for controlling irrigation waters covering an area of 110 acres 
and impounding 1,500 acre-feet of water. 

The construction problems were many and varied and gave 
"both the local staff and the district office engineers from Billings 
much to think about. Here are some of the problems: In beginning, 
the soil which was to be used in the fill was tested by the Recla- 
mation Service and pronounced too fine in particle size to be used 
safely. That circumstance necessitated a change in the fill de- 
sign, and made necessary particularly careful placing. Next, evi- 
dence of alkali appeared in the spillway excavation, and it was 
feared that concrete could not be placed with safety. Tests by 
three different laboratories dispelled our fears. 

While the work was in progress, the Bureau of Standards 
was running model tests on the spillway, results from which neces- 
sitated minor changes in design. Flooded borrow pits caused small 
springs to start through unsuspected gravel seams to hamper the 
work and make annoying demands upon pumping equipment. Thousands 
of yards of excavated material could not be used on the fill be- 
cause it was hard shale which disintegrated to a floury material 
upon freezing and thawing - as found through tests completed by our 
district office. Gravel layers in the reservoir basin made it nec- 
essary to extend long core trenches on both ends of the fill. An 
early freeze that came to stay stopped the work in the fall at a 
difficult stage. When the frost left, boggy springs developed be- 
hind the core wall and persistently defied our efforts at compac- 
tion. Two minor floods on the creek and an unprecedented rainy 
period caused a loss of approximately two weeks effort. 



Inexperienced Workers Do Fine Job 

While the technical problems increased, we were forced, 
in the middle of the yesr , to reduce our staff. Engineers, skilled 
laborers, tractor operators, were replaced by enroll ees. This 
caused the one faint flicker of discouragement. As the job went on 
with enrollee carpenters, steel men, concrete finishers, mechanics, 
tractor operators and engineers, the spirit of the crew developed- 
No one said, "I can't," and the effect was electrifying. The dif- 
ference between these enrollees and skilled laborers or skilled 
machine operators is a difference in experience, and the newer men 
are rapidly making up that difference. 



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23 



THE AMERICAN INDIAN SIGN LANGUAGE 

By John P. Harrington, Smithsonian Institution 

(Kote: This is the first part of Section 3 of an article on the 

American Indian sign language. The first section appeared 

in the issue of March, 1938, and the second section appeared 

in the issues of July and August, 1938.) 

What Had Been Done Before Scott's Work ? 

Prior to the motion picture filming of the sign language 
by Major General Hugh Lenox Scott in 1931-32, the fascinating story 
of which I am about to tell, seven major works had been published 
on the American Indian sign language.* The first and fourth of 
these were without illustrations. The second and third, both by 
Mallery, had a few illustrations depicting certain signs. Only the 
fifth, sixth and seventh were illustrated by diagrams. Photography, 
either in the form of still or motion pictures, was not employed in 
the preparation of any of these seven works. Clark's work was writ- 
ten by a man thoroughly versed in the subject and also contains 
unique historical material. Credit is to be given to Hadley for 
initiating the system of diagram depiction. The appearance of * the 
books embraced a period from 1822 to 1936 - more than a hundred 
years - and during the last quarter of this period, motion pictures 
were invented and developed. It remained for General Scott to use 
them for recording the signs. 



* 1. Long, Stephen Harriman, The Indian Sign Language, Account of an Expedition from Pitts- 
burgh to the Bocky Mountains, Performed in the Tears 1819 and '20 by Order of the Honorable J. C. Cal- 
houn, Secretary of War; under the Command of Major Stephen H. Long. Philadelphia, Pa., 1822-'23. 2 
vols. Vol. 1, pp. 378-394- Presents 104 signs. The outstanding pioneer work on the subject. 

2. Mallery, Garrlck. A Collection of Gesture-Signs and Signals of the North American Indians . 
with Some Comparisons . (Published as proof-sheets. ) Distributed only to Collaborators. Smithsonian In- 
stitution, Bureau of American Ethnology, (Miscellaneous Collections No. l). Washington, D. C, 1880, pp. 
1-329. This Is a compilation of many earlier published minor works on the American Indian sign language, 
including that of Long, and also embodies the materials in a manuscript by Dodge, and in a manuscript by 
Corbusier. It consists of: 1. dictionary of signs, English translation alphabetic order, pp. 17-293, 
presenting some 631 signs; 2. dictionary of tribal signs, pp. 294-307; 3. texts in sign language, the 
first ever published in a major work, pp. 308-319; signals, pp. 320-329; all presented without diagrams. 
ThiB work was printed as proof-sheets with the same idea and at about the same time as Filling's well-known 
printed proof-sheets of American Indian Languages on some of the American linguistic families* 

3. Mallery, Garrlck, Sign Language Among The North American Indians Compared With That Among 
Other Peoples and Deaf Mutes , 1st tvnnnni Report, Bureau of American Ethnology, Washington, D. C, 1881, 
pp. 253-552. Consists largely, as regards signs, of excerpts taken from the "Collection" published as 
proofrsheets the year previous, but containing many diagrams of signs and other illustrations, and with 
much general material added. 

4. Clark, William Phllo, The Indian Sign Language , Philadelphia, Pa., 1885, 443 pp. The dic- 
tionary section, having English translation alphabetic order, occupies pp. 21-409, and presents more 



24 



I list these publications here in the order of their ap- 
pearance, and since, tarring new editions of Tomkins' hook, they 
are all that has appeared on the subject up to the present time. 
Their listing here furnishes a complete bibliography on the American 
Indian sign language-* It is interesting to note that three of 
these authors - Long, Mallery, and Clark - were Army men. 



" Loose Pants ," Also Called "Classes Man ": A Military 

Man Who Was Also An Ethnologist 

Hugh Lenox Scott was born at Danville, Kentucky on Sep- 
tember 22, 1853. Hugh L° Scott followed an Army career. He grad- 
uated from West Point in 187B, and, as he used to tell with a 
chuckle, he was fourth from the bottom of his class. At the time 
when young Scott graduated, Indian wars were rife in the West, and 
his first thought was to go West to see active Service. So the 
young man came directly to Washington, D. C, upon his graduation, 
saw certain people in authority, and was assigned June 26, 1876, to 
the 9th Cavalry which was then doing service in the Montana region. 
He obtained a little later a transfer to the 7th Cavalry which had, 
before he joined it, participated in the Battle of the Little Big 
Horn. He served in the 7th Cavalry during the remainder of the 
Sioux campaign and after that in the Nez Perce war. His earliest 
service was in Montana and the northern country. Later he was 
stationed for many years in Oklahoma, where he gained a deep knowl- 
edge of the Kiowa Tribe. During a period of 38 years he received 
promotions and assignments to various posts in what ethnologists 
call the Western Plains Area - which, as we have seen, is the area 
where the American Indian sign language reached its peak of develop- 
ment. 



than 1,000 signs. Without diagrams. The work contains in its introductory portion and as entries un- 
der tribal signs, very valuable early historical data on the peoples of the Western Plains. 

5. Hadley, Lewis F. , Indian Sign Talk . (Place of publication not given.) (Copyrighted) 
1893, 273 pp. Presents 577 eigne, all of them illustrated by diagrams, also valuable terts in sign lan- 
guage, the second ever published. The dictionary entries are reprints of Hadley's cards. The sign lan- 
guage text of the 19th Psalm reproduced at the end of this article is taken from Hadley, with emenda- 
tions. This book is a pooling of Hadley's material, most of which was also published piecemeal- 

6. Seton, Ernest Thompson, Sign Talk , Sarden City, New York, 1918, 237 pp. Presents 1725 
signs, by far the largest number given in any of these dictionaries. English translation alphabetic 
order; mary of the signs illustrated with diagrams. Based mainly on the Cheyenne form of the American 
Indian sisn language, but worked out with thought of use by the Boy Scouts of America and for other 
practical use, and including even some non-Indian signs. Prepared in consultation with General Scott 
and- with many others. 

7. TnmlHrm, Wmiam. Universal Indian HfiB ItSBgaage. S)£ -jiba Plains, jndjans °1 I°I*fr America,; 
together with a Dictionary of Synonyms Covering the Basic Words Represented; Also a Codification of Pic- 
to^aphic Word Symbols of the Ojibway and Sioux Nations. San Diego. California. 1926. 77 pp. This book 
ha» already been published In seven editions, the second edition appearing in 1927 ana containing 9 o pages. 
Starting with the second edition the book was officially adopted by the Boy Scouts of America, and by 
other organizations. The seventh edition appeared in 1938. In the second edition, f°ll°»i"e «"> in- 
duction, a first and main section of the work consists of a sign language dictionary. English translation 
alphabetic order, the dictionary occupying right-band pages and diagrams illustrating some of the sign, 
occupying left-hand pages. The seventh edition has Trench and German equivalents added- 



25 



General Scott became trusted adviser to the Indians every- 
where and a most able executive in their behalf. And more than 
this, he became the first U. S. Army man who was a real ethnologist, 
publishing articles and accumulating an invaluable mass of early 
photographs. (These came as a bequest into the possession of the 
Bureau of American Ethnology, which he had for years befriended, 
only in June, 1938.) He was appointed Chief of Staff, bearing the 
title of Major General, on November 17, 1914, but was too near the 
retirement age to receive the appointment , which was given to Gener- 
al Pershing. September 22, 1917, he was legally retired because of 
age and service, but because of the World War, he remained on active 
duty until May 12, 1919, when he received his final retirement. He 
remained, however, an extremely busy man, holding various positions 
until a year before his death, which occurred in the Walter Reed 
Hospital in Washington, D. C. , on April 30, 1934, at the age of 
eighty-one years. He is buried in the Arlington National Ceme- 
tery in Virgin!?, near Washington, P. C. 

General Scott was plain and unassuming. He would talk 
with anybody. He could hold his own with any ethnologist. As he 
used to say, he always put the civil above the military and the 
scientific above all. Among other lines of achievement, he became 
an expert user of the sign language. Milburn L. Wilson, the pres- 
ent Undersecretary of Agriculture, tells me how he met General Scott 
in the summer of 1919, then in his 66th year, at the Crow Agency in 
Montana. Mr. Wilson spent four days with General Scott at the Crow 
and Cheyenne Reservations which are adjacent to each other. Mr. 
Wilson was told, on his arrival, that the general was in the dormi- 
tory of the Crow Indian School, and there he found him dressed in 
a First Sergeant's modest uniform, pouring over a card catalog of 
the American Indian sign language. 

The next morning the general took Mr. Wilson on a goodly 
walk afoot to interview an old Crow woman who was drying wild plums. 
The general negotiated with her for the purchase of some of the 
plums, dried in old Indian fashion, which were used by the general 
as a most excellent purgative - all in the -sign language, with Mr. 
Wilson looking on and marveling indeed. The following day, the two 
visited the Custer battlefield at Little Big Horn, Montana, twelve 
miles away. In the fall of that same year, Mr. Wilson met the 
general again at the Yankton Reservation in South Dakota - still 
busily engaged in his studies of the sign language. 

General Scott was a warm personal friend of Buffalo Bill 
and knew nearly all the other notables in the early West. He also 
traveled in remote parts of the earth and found resemblances to the 
American Indian sign language among signs used by savages in dis- 
tant lands- He saw brief service in the Philippine Islands, where 



26 



Major General Hugh L. Scott And Colonel William 
Frederick Cody (Buffalo Bill) 

These Two Friends Of Indians Were Themselves Fast Friends 




(From the Scott collection of photographs bequeathed to the Bureau 
of American .Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution, 
received from General Scott's widow in June 1938. 
Courtesy, Bureau of American Ethnology, Washington, D. C.) 



27 



several of his fingers were mutilated in an explosion. Strange to 
say, the Kiowas, the Indians who knew him best, never associated 
him especially with a knowledge of the sign language, but knew him 
by two Kiowa names: Zhaakhaae (both syllables high accent), Loose 
Pants, referring to his military pants, and less commonly as 
Haa n tak ' ia (1st syllable high falling, 2nd syllable low, 3rd syl- 
lable low), Glasses Man, because he wore glasses. It will be no- 
ticed that neither of these names refers to him as sign user. It 
is said, however, that the Cheyennes sometimes called him Sign User 



The Ethnologist General Harbors For Years A Secret Plan 

Although stationed far from where motion pictures were be- 
ing invented and where even the coming of one or two was a rarity 
in the early days. General Scott carried for years in the back of 
his head what the Germans call "eine fixe Idee." He talked about 
it to no one. Ever since Senator Leland Stanford in the 'eighties 
of the past century took snapshots in rapid succession of race 
horses at his Palo Alto, California, course, ever since in the 
•nineties cardboard zootropes came out as a. supplement to Sunday 
newspapers which, when mounted at home and whirled by hand, showed 
pictures in motion, General Scott had held in deepest secret the 
idea of using succession photography for rescuing from ultimate 
oblivion the American Indian sign language. 



A Bill .Is Passed By Congress For An Unusual Scientific Purpose 

General Scott observed that the old Indian people really 
talked with their hands, while the "younger generation", even in- 
cluding such men as Richard Sanderville, now in his sixties, al- 
though having an enormous knowledge of the signs, used them in a 
less intuitive and vivid manner. He had seen the oldest Indians 
pantomime their thoughts and express much by making a few general 
movements. He had seen several of the best sign talkers, as, for 
example, as his dear Kiowa friend I-see-you, go down to their 
graves without any recording of their fund of sign knowledge. 

On the other hand, his live interest in the Boy Scout 
and Girl Scout movement made him hope that, if suitable recording 
means could be quickly found, the American Indian sign language 
could be perpetuated and preserved indefinitely by the youth of 
America.. 

Realizing that proficiency in the sign language was be- 
coming obsolete, General Scott strove desperately to find a means 
of getting it filmed before the few remaining best users should 
pass away. 



28 



In 1930 the aging general persuaded influential friends 
in Congress to introduce and pass a bill* setting aside $5,000 to 
be used for .the film recording of the American Indian sign language 
under his supervision. Thus the sign language enjoys the honor of 
having been rescued photographically through a special act of Con- 
gress and through the instrumentality of one of America's most famous 
post-Civil War generals. The dream of earlier years, the urgent 
plan of later years, had been realized. 

A Sign Council 

General Scott chose not the Kiowa Agency in Oklahoma, 
where he spent so much time, but the Blackfeet Agency at Browning, 
Montana, as the place for the work- By joint agreement between 
the Office of Indian Affairs, Department of the Interior, and the 
Office of Motion Pictures (now the Division of Motion Pictures), 
Department of Agriculture, the field filming of the sign, language 
was arranged to be done under the personal direction of General 
Scott in September, 1930. For this purpose, Blackfeet Superintendent, 
Forrest R. Stone, summoned various old sign-talking Indians sug- 
gested by General Scott to come to Browning and telegrams were 
sent out to the Crow, Tongue River, Standing Rock, Fort Belknap, 
Fort Berthold, Flathead and Shoshone Agencies, inviting the vari- 
ous superintendents and agents as well as certain Indians to at- 
tend a sign council at Browning. Mr. Raymond Evans, Chief, Of- 
fice of Motion Pictures, and Mr. Eugene Tucker, Cinematographer , 
Office of Motion Pictures, went to Browning from Washington. Mr. 
Malcolm McDowell, Secretary of the Board of Indian Commissioners, 
handled the details in connection with the. transfer of funds, and 
the administrative end of the inter-departmental agreement. 

As matters worked out, fourteen of the invited Indians 
came to Browning and became members of the unique sign council, of 
which General Scott was the fifteenth member. It happened that 
none of the invited superintendents and agents came. The fourteen 
Indians who attended were: Tom White Horse, Wyoming, Arapaho; 
James Eagle, North Dakota, AriKara; Rides Black Horse, Montana, 
Assiniboin; Mountain Chief, Montana, Piegan (Blackfeet); Bird 



* The language of the authorizing act of Congress, approved April 8, 1930, by the 71et Congress, Second 
Session (see U. S. Stat. 46, p. 147) In Its most essential part Is as follows: "That there be hereby 
authorized ... to be expended in the discretion of the Secretary of the Interior, in making a permanent 
record of the sign language of the American Indians by whatever means may to him be advisable, and to 
meet the expense of recording motion and sound pictures through the instrumentality of Major Qeneral Hugh 
L. Scott, retired, and such Indians as may be required to assist him, the theory, history and practice of 
the said sign language." The appropriation which had the above mentioned Act as its authority Is the 
Second Deficiency Act for the fiscal year 1930, approved July 3, 1930, 71et Congress, Second Session (U. S. 
Stat. 46, p. 875). 



29 



Rattler, Montana, Blood; Strange Owl, Montana, Cheyenne; Deer Nose, 
Montana, Crow; Bitter-root Jim, Montana, Flathead; Drags Wolf, North 
Dakota, Grosventre; Assiniboin Boy, Montana, Grosventre; Foolish 
Woman, North Dakota, Mandan; Fine Young Man, Canada, Sarcee; Dick 
Washakie, Wyoming, Shoshone; Iron Whip, Montana, Sioux. 

It will he seen that these fourteen members represented 
almost as many spoken languages, making it possible to record tribal 
diversities and relative richness of vocabulary of the sign language. 
Eichard Sanderville, Blackfeet, served particularly as interpreter. 

The Blackfeet Agency at Browning, Montana, was selected 
by General Scott as the site .for the council. Mountain Chief, 82- 
year-old and blind Piegan (Blackfeet) Chief and expert sign user 
was host to the council. 




Mountain Chief And Major General. Hugh L. Scott 

At Browning, Montana In 1930. Mountain Chief Purchased The 

Suit He Is Shown Wearing Especially For The Occasion. 



30 



Just opposite the Blackfeet Agency at Browning, Montana, 
three large Piegan-style tiois, or native circular lodges were built 
by tne Indians in a row from north to south. Thes£ tipis invariably 
have the door to the east. The central tipi of the row was used 
for the council meetings. To the north of it stood the mess tipi, 
while the southermost tipi was for the women's quarters. The mo- 
tion picture and still exposute photography was done entirely by 
daylight, the eastern side of the upper cloth covering the council 
tipi being removed to give good lighting. The motion picture tri- 
pod was placed in the door of the tipi. The fourteen members of 
the council sat on the ground around the western inside wall in a 
semicircle as the camera was turned on the talkers one by one. 

As the representatives filed into the council tipi in 
full costume, General Scott greeted each of them with signs of 
welcome. Each representative was then filmed separately as Gener- 
al Scott asked him in sign language his name and tribe. General 
Scott talked, in signs, about the large vocabulary of the sign 
language and about how signs have been added, as have also newly- 
formed words in spoken languages, during recent years to provide 
terms for the white man's gadgets - which, he implied, the Indian 
might get along better without. The radip, for instance, was, he 
told them, just the opposite of the sign language, being nothing 
but "loud mouth", as the Indians express it, and though it is 
built on a dozen of experiments extended through forty years, and 
flung forth by equipment worth millions of dollars, the old-time 
Indian prefers the silent sign. 




Prom Left To Right: Strange Owl, .Bird Rattler And 
Major General Scott, Sitting In The Central Tipi. 
(Random enlarged frame from the six reels taken 
at sign council tipi) 

31 



After council members were all seated around the western 
wall. General Scott opened the meeting with signs: "My brothers", 
he said, "you have come from the four winds." After this greeting, 
the Indians of the various tribes sign-talked in turn. Only four 
among the fourteen members gave sign-talk stories. These were Bit- 
ter-root Jim, Tom White Horse, Strange Owl and Mountain Chief. 
Mountain Chief, one of the best sign-talkers (who is still living 
at the present writing), gave his talk outside in front of the tipi, 
where he was persuaded by the photographers in order to get the 
best possible light. In all, six reels were exposed at the historic 
sign council at Browning. None of these, however, included a "sound 
track;" that is, they were silent motion pictures. 

(To Be Concluded In The Issue Of November) 
ONEIDA INDIANS PUSH GARDEN PROGRAM 



The Oneida In- 
dians of Wisconsin (Tomah 
School Jurisdiction) have 
determined to make the 
most of their reservation's 
principal resource - good 
agricultural soil. They 
are planning to increase 
their dairy holdings and 
to raise vegetables as 
cash crops. 



The number of 
horses on the reservation 
is small; much of the plowing and harrowing, consequently, has 
been done by using an old cut-down automobile pictured above. 




RECENT CHANGES OF ASSIGNMENT 



Mr. Carl Beck, formerly stockman at the Navajo Agency, 
has entered on duty as superintendent of the Western Shoshone A- 
gency, Nevada, in place of Mr. Emmett McNeilly, who has gone to 
Rocky Boy's Agency, Montana. Mr. Charles H. Berry, superintendent 
at the Cheyenne and Arapaho Agency, Oklahoma, is being transferred 
to the superintendency of the New York Agency at Salamanca, New 
York, in place of Mr. William K. Harrison, special agent in charge. 
Mr . Guy Hobgood, superintendent of the Truzton Canon Agency at 
Valentine, Arizona, will take the superintendency of the Cheyenne 
and Arapaho Agency. 



32 



CECIL DICK . YOUNG CHEROKEE PAINTER 
By Maud Parker 




Cherokee Men On Their Way To The Council Of Their Trihe. 
(Mural at the Sequoyah Indian School, Tahlequah, Oklahoma) 

Cecil Dick, full-blood Cherokee, was born September 16, 
1915, near Bose, Oklahoma. He was orphaned as a child, and his 
schooling has consequently been somewhat varied. He has been a 
pupil at the Seneca Indian School, at Wyandotte, Oklahoma, at the 
Chilocco Indian School and at the Sequoyah Indian School. 

Wishing to get special training in art work, he went to 
the Santa Pe Indian School for a year; then he returned to Sequoyah 
to finish his high school course in 1936. 

Cecil Dick has painted morals at Sequoyah and at Bagley 
High School in Oklahoma; and has had his pictures exhibited in 
Tulsa, Albuquerque, Chicago, San Francisco , Washington and New Tork. 



33 



THS FLAMBEAU FISH HATCHERY 



(This article is taken from an article by Ben C Gauthier 
in the "Flambeau Blue Book" , which, is issued by the Flambeau Tax- 
payers 1 Association, and from material furnished by the Wisconsin 
Conservation Commission. ) 



The Lac du Flambeau 
Indians of the Great Lakes 
Agency, Wisconsin are deeply 
interested in maintaining 
their reservation as a fine 
fishing area. Their fish 
hatchery, built by CCC-ID, 
and operated for the tribe by 
the Wisconsin Conservation De- 
partment, is making this pos- 
sible. 

The hatchery con- 
sists of a group of three 
buildings, located on tribal 
land at the south end of Po- 
kegama Lake • In the hatchery 
building itself, the young 
muskellunge and wall-eyed 
pike fry are hatched; in the 
net house, built along lines 
approved by the Conservation 
Commission, the 45 nets are 
stored; and in the boathouse 
the three motorboats, the 
three other boats and their 
equipment sxe housed. 




George W. Brown, President of the 

Tribal Council, Lac du Flambeau 

Band of Lake Superior Chippewa- 

(Wisconsin Conservation Department 

Photograph) 



Twelve to twenty men are employed at the plant, according 
to the seasonal demand. The workers start gathering the spawn in 
the smaller outlying lakes - where the water is warmer - in the 
early spring, and work in toward the Flambeau chain of lakes. The 
eggs are hatched in glass jars, about six to twenty- four days being 
required. The fry are planted as soon as they axe hatched, since 
it is necessary to get them into their natural habitat and on their 
natural diet as soon as possible. The muskellunge spawn first - 
beginning before the ice goes out - and the pike spawning season 
follows soon after. 



34 



The fry axe distributed to all the lakes in the reserva- 
tion which are suitable for the propagation of fish. A pro-rata 
system based on the acreage of the lakes is used in allotting the 
fry. 

An allied project at Lac du Flambeau is the proposed con- 
struction of a bass rearing pond, whose object would be to give 
protection to bass fingerlings until they reach a size which will 
give them a more likely chance of survival - that is, from three to 
six inches in length. 

George W. Brown, president of the tribal council, says 
of these projects: "Our lakes have always been great fishing wa- 
ters. When only the Indians lived here we did not need to think 
about hatcheries • Now white people in large numbers come here to 
fish. We want them always to have good luck snd to make good 
catches in our waters, so we are hatching and planting fish, par- 
ticularly pike and muskellunge. If the fishermen who come here 
make good catches and land big ones, they will want to come again. 
They will rent the cabins we have built and they will tell their 
friends about them. If many of them come, we can build more cabins 




Interior, Fish Hatchery, Lac du Flambeau. Capacity - 140 Jars. 
Jars in This Photograph Are Filled With Pike Eggs Being Hatched. 
^Wisconsin Conservation Department Photograph) 



35 




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36 



THREE THOUSAND FEET DOWN 

By Erik W. Allstroin, Camp Superintendent, CCC-ID 
Phoenix, Arizona 

Some peo- 
ples are by nature 
peaceful. Whsn they 
are few in number 
they dare not be 
otherwise. The Hav- 
asupai Indians, now 
about two hundred in 
number, may belong 
to both groups. 

Once the 
Apaches were warlike 
and aggressive. Lat- 
er came the Span- 
iards, every bit as 
warlike and much 
more aggressive. Up 
on the high plateau 
of northern Arizona 
these two races found a simple agricultural people busy working out 
a meager existence in a semi-arid region. Some of these folk were 
killed in raids and all were robbed of such wealth aft they had. 
Northward they fled until they came to the sheer wall of the Grand 
Canyon of the Colorado River about sixty miles west of El Tovar, 
where today tourists gather to look into the mightiest of earth's 
chasms. A precipitous slope let them down into a side canyon, at 
the bottom of which they discovered a tiny but fertile meadowland. 
There they have lived ever since. 

The Havasupai village is some three thousand feet below 
the level of the Arizona Plateau, and fifteen hundred feet above 
the Colorado River about fourteen miles away. Through the settle- 
ment sparkles the clear stream of Cataract Creek, born from springs 
hidden along some hundred yards of the narrow canyon floor a quar- 
ter mile away. Below the settlement are four waterfalls within 
about two miles, the last one with a sheer drop of two hundred 
eighty feet. So the Havasupais have a home valley perhaps two 
miles long and two or three hundred yards wide. 




Looking Down Into the Supai Valley 



37 



Of land 
the Havasupai tribe 
has 512 acres, a 
part of which is 
now being irrigated 
The work of build- 
ing flumes and dig- 
ging irrigation 
ditches is being 
done by the men of 
the tribe working 
as CCC-ID enroll- 
ees. Each of the 
forty families has 
its small patches 
of ground, care- 
fully terraced to 
conserve the water 
that comes either 
as rain or as 
brought by simple 
little ditches. 




Typical Supai Scene, Showing Method Of 
Terracing Land for Farming. The Dark 
Cliff is 1,000 Feet High and the Gray 
One Beyond Rises Another 2,000 Feet. 



The land cannot produce enough for even the few needs of the vil- 
lagers; some of the younger men, however, have been able to get 
work in the Grand Canyon National Park, and support themselves away 
from the home canyon. 

To reach Havasupai one may go from the Grand Canyon or 
from Seligman, by car to the canyon rim. From Grand Canyon "Hill- 
top 11 there is a 14-mile horse trail to Supai, while from the Selig- 
man or Hualapai "Hilltop" the trail, a CCC-ID project, is only 
eight miles long. 

Except for the small quantity of home-grown food, every- 
thing used at Supai must be taken down by pack-train. Cement for 
masonry construction, pipe for irrigation work, every board of lum- 
ber, household utensils, canned goods, together with all clothing, 
must be packed in on animals. Life is exacting in many ways, yet 
the privilege of living in the midst of such magnificant surround- 
ings is, perhaps, worth the loss of some of the conveniences which 
we think of as part of our modern way of life. 



38 



NOTE* rfcOM WEEKLY PR0QBE33 fttPOfcT* OF 
CIVILIAN CONSERVATION COS *S — INDIAN DIVISION 



Fire Prevention Work At Yakima 
(W ashington ) Due to the unusually 
warm weather which has "been preva- 
lent for the past several weeks, the 
fire hazard for Signal Peak and the 
surrounding vicinity has been very 
great . Because of the increased 
fire hazard, we are holding the en- 
tire crew on fire duty. Several new 
lookouts were installed on the vari- 
ous lookout stations to he used for 
the remainder of the fire season . 

Work on the Signal Peak-White 
Creek Truck Trail is progressing 
very rapidly and the crews are doing 
very good work. 

Excellent use is being made of 
the new kittyball field and tennis 
court. Very enthusiastic players 
turn out for both sports each evening, 
providing very enjoyable and enter- 
taining pastime for both the players 
and spectators alike. Keith Watson . 

Truck Trail Construction At Fort 
Apache ( Arizona ) Good progress was 
made on the Rock Creek Horse Trail, 
considering the hillside work and the 
rocky formation. A little time was 
lost due to the heavy rainstorms. 
Loy Varnell . 

Bank Protection Work At Mission 
( California ) Bank protection work 
was started in Yapitcha Creek. This 
was made necessary because of the 
damage caused by the floods of last 
season. A rock and wire revetment 
wall has been started and the excava- 
tion work for same is well along. 



This wall, when completed, will 
protect the adjacent lands and keep 
the stream within its channel. 

Another crew has started con- 
struction on a horse trail in the 
Potrero district, starting at a 
point at the southwest corner of 
the Mendenhall Ranch, running south- 
erly about one and one-half miles 
to a spring and thence on to the 
southern boundary where the fence 
crosses the San Luis Rey River. 

Dam Construction At Fort Peck 
( Montana ) The small dam below 
springs 228 and 229 was started this 
week. Nine hundred s.y. of sod were 
removed and borrow pits were opened. 
A small cut-off trench was made and 
forty-five cubic yards of dirt were 
moved into the fill. 

The materials used on spring 
228 to complete it was: one spring 
can, 20 feet of perforated pipe and 
a trench 90 feet long was made and 
riprapped. A five wire fence was 
built around this spring to keep 
the stock out. The spring' flows 
an average of five gallons per min- 
ute. Grant 0. Smith , Sub-Foreman . 

Ribes Eradication At Great 
Lakes ( Wisconsin ) The majority of 
the enrollees at this unit are at 
the present time engaged in Ribes 
eradication. The men, as a whole, 
are organized along prescribed 
lines, working five men in line, 
followed by an Assistant Leader and 
an Assistant Checker. 



39 



Prom a total of seven species 
of Ribes, we have found five dis- 
tinct species on this reservation. 
The general purpose of this program 
is gradually being understood by 
our boys. The ultimate result will 
greatly enhance the value of the 
pine reproduction. The value of the 
pine as a scenic asset is also ap- 
preciated. 

Recreational activities have 
also captured the interest of our 
boys . Recently the entire group 
took a trip to a nearby park where 
the afternoon was pleasantly spent . 
Joe Vandeventer , Leader , CCC-ID . 

Fire Presuppression At Flat - 
head ( Montana ) The fire danger dur- 
ing the past few weeks Has remained 
at Class 5, with humidity low and 
temperature ranging from 90 to 100 
degrees . Nearly all of the planned 
fire presuppression force was placed 
on duty recently. 

In spite of the hazardous condi- 
tions, however, we have had no fires 
within the timbered area as yet and 
only one fire occurred in the open. 
This fire started in a hayfield and 
was caused by the backfire from a 
passing automobile. Visibility has 
been rather poor recently because 
of a 200-acre fire on the Cabinet 
National Forest, which lies to the 
west of this reservation. William 
Trosper . 

Horse Trail Construction At 
Wind River ( Wyoming ) The crew that 
was working on the Circle Ridge 
Trail has been moved to a new loca- 
tion on Mosquito Park, where the 
crew will work on the horse trails. 
All of the moving work was done by 
the trucks on duty here at the Agency 



A great deal of work has been 
done on the mountain trails. This 
work has consisted of: sloping the 
banks, filling up ruts, cleaning all 
culverts and blasting all heavy rock 
on the right-of-way. 

Native red stone, which is found 
in this vicinity, is being used to 
build flagstone walks on the CCC-ID 
homes here at the Agency. J. Fox . 

Boundary Surveying At Tonawanda 
( New York ) Everything has been fine 
to the finish and we completed our 
work with the surveyors. We have 
surveyed fourteen miles of line and 
have set fifty-seven monuments. Of 
course, all the lines were retraced, 
preliminary to setting the monuments. 

The boys have done their work 
well and have cooperated with the 
surveyors from start to finish. One 
of the engineers later told me that 
he liked the boys so well and said: 
"I wish we could take them along to 
the next job." 

We had good cooperation in this 
piece of work and it created a feel- 
ing that made parting kind of hard 
at the completion of the project. 

Activities At Chin Lee , Navajo 
( Arizona) Since a fresh water 
stream flows near this camp, the 
boys have been fishing after working 
hours • Several of the boys have 
been telling "tall tales" about the 
fish they have caught; however, the 
largest caught this week was about 
ten inches long. The fish in this 
particular stream are not very large. 
Stanley R . Thomas , Sr . , Sub-Foreman . 

Recreational Program At Cheyenne 
and Arapaho (Oklahoma) The enrollee 



40 



program in recreational work is prov- 
ing to be a great success- Much en- 
tertainment and activity has been 
enjoyed through baseball and soft- 
ball games and at the present time 
we are holding a school in water 
safety. Levi Beaver . 

Grasshopper Eradication At Hose- 
bud ( South Dakota ) Eecently we put 
out 90 sacks of poison bait on some 
500 acres of farmland. The corn 
crop was looking good and doing fine 
but the grasshoppers started in on 
the outside edges of these fields, 
therefore we spread bait around the 
edges and perhaps four or five rows 
along the edges in the corn, too. 
The effect of the poison has been 
very encouraging in most places . 
The grasshoppers seem to fall off 
the cornstalks wherever the bait 
has been spread. We find about 
twelve grasshoppers to the square 
foot. This operation has to be re- 
peated every three or four days • 
The 500 acres mentioned above has 
had to have two treatments in a 
single week. 

A little time was lost in exper- 
imenting as to the best method of 
spreading the bait and also because 
we were unable to procure enough 
poison to take care of our needs. 
But now we can get all the bait we 
need and we hope to make better 
progress from how on. 

Most of our former CCC boys are 
now engaged in outside work during 
the harvesting and threshing season. 
This office has made every effort 
possible to help these boys get such 
outside work, and so far, with good 
success. William Barnett , Assistant 
Foreman. 



Recreational Activities At Car - 
son ( Nevada ) Recently we were 
favored with a visit from Mr. S. S. 
Gurneau, who took charge of the 
recreational end of the activities 
at camp. He held several campfire 
meetings in which talks were given 
and jokes were told. Mr. Gurneau 
also started a soft ball tournament 
and a horseshoe tournament here. We 
will miss his services when he is 
called back to the Stewart Indian 
School, where he is employed as As- 
sistant Adviser. Frank M. Parcher . 

Progress At Northern Idaho 
( Idaho ) We are rapidly completing 
some of our projects. The weather 
has been warm in the valley, but it 
is still cool up on the mountains. 
There have been several thunder storms 
accompanied by heavy rains so that 
the ground is fairly well soaked. 
This has delayed the fire season. 
Our baseball teams have been giving 
a very good account of themselves. 
Harold R . Wing . 

Dusting Control At Crow Creek 
( South Dakota ) The dusting control 
crew is very interested in its work, 
especially after dead crickets and 
grasshoppers have been seen where 
the dusting mixture has been used. 

The crickets and grasshoppers 
are not under control as yet and it 
is doubtful as to whether they will 
be for some time to come, but the 
poison is having a great effect and 
many of the crickets are being de- 
stroyed. 

We are trying to save a few of 
the fields and grasslands and hope 
to be successful. Gilbert Crezy 
B ull , Leader . 



41 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION LIBRARIES 




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